It took four years to build the city, initially known as al-Manṣūriyyah,[24] which was to serve as the new capital of the caliphate. Other extant monuments from the Fatimid era include the large Mosque of al-Hakim, the Aqmar Mosque, Juyushi Mosque, Lulua Mosque, and the Mosque of Al-Salih Tala'i. [102], In March 2015, plans were announced for a yet-unnamed planned city to be built east of Cairo, in an undeveloped area of the Cairo Governorate, which would serve as the administrative and financial capital of Egypt.[84]. He noted that producing goods in Angola would give Spanish companies a competitive edge in exporting to the rest of Africa. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC.[8]. The National Cultural Centre was built with the help of JICA, the Japan International Co-operation Agency and stands as a prominent feature for the Japanese-Egyptian co-operation and the friendship between the two nations. Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo. Trams in Greater Cairo and Cairo trolleybus are former modes of transportation but were closed. This was known as al-Askar (the city of sections, or cantonments) as it was laid out like a military camp. In 969, the Fatimid empire ruled over Egypt, and under the rule of Jawhar Al Saqili, a new fortified city northeast of Fustat was established. Africa has proportionally reported fewer coronavirus cases and deaths than Europe. [14][15] Its official name al-Qāhirah  (Arabic: القاهرة‎) means "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror", supposedly due to the fact that the planet Mars, an-Najm al-Qāhir (Arabic: النجم القاهر‎, "the Conquering Star"), was rising at the time when the city was founded,[16] possibly also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz who reached Cairo in 973 from Mahdia, the old Fatimid capital. Today, Greater Cairo is the centre for many government offices governing the Egyptian educational system, has the largest number of educational schools, and higher education institutes among other cities and governorates of Egypt. A Boeing 727 took off from Quatro de Fevereiro International Airport in Luanda, Angola without clearance or a flight plan on May 25, 2003. [142], The air pollution in Cairo is a matter of serious concern. [66][67] The goal of the government of the newly formed Kingdom of Egypt was not to delegitimize the other variant Quranic texts ("qira'at"), but to eliminate errors found in Qur’anic texts used in state schools. [73] Between 1882 and 1937, the population of Cairo more than tripled—from 347,000 to 1.3 million[74]—and its area increased from 10 to 163 square kilometres (4 to 63 sq mi). [122] It is one of the largest mosques in Cairo and is often cited as one of the most beautiful. Find out more here [75], The city was devastated during the 1952 riots known as the Cairo Fire or Black Saturday, which saw the destruction of nearly 700 shops, movie theatres, casinos and hotels in downtown Cairo. 30°3′29″N 31°13′44″E / 30.05806°N 31.22889°E / 30.05806; 31.22889, This article is about the Egyptian capital. After the original opera house was destroyed, Cairo was without an opera house for nearly two decades until the opening of the new Cairo Opera House in 1988. With an unemployment rate above 30%, the southwest African country is expected to record a fifth straight year of recession in 2021. [32] [134], Today, Cairo is heavily urbanized and most Cairenes now live in apartment buildings. [64] Nevertheless, this led to Egypt's independence in 1922. Spanish authorities are holding thousands of migrants, including potential asylum seekers, in camps set up on the islands, hoping to return as many of them to their home countries either voluntarily or through agreements with African governments. Compare your options:. United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerement of Women, History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty, Arab Academy for Science & Technology and Maritime Transport, Misr University for Science and Technology, Heliopolis University for Sustainable Development, Evangelical Church of Egypt (Synod of the Nile), Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt, "Population distribution by selected age groups, sex and governorate according to final results of 2017 Pop.Census (201993091923pop.pdf)",, "Population Estimates By Sex & Governorate 1/1/2020 (20204139534pop.pdf)", "Historic Cairo – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "Cairo – "Al-Qahira" – is Egypt's capital and the largest city in the Middle East and Africa", Globalization and World Cities Research Network, "Cairo's third metro line beats challenges", "The 150 Richest Cities in the World by GDP in 2005", "Talk:Wp/cop/ⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ – Wikimedia Incubator", بلال فضل يتفرغ لـ"أهل اسكندرية" بعد "أهل كايرو",, Studies in two transmissions of the Qur'an, Böwering, "Recent Research on the Construction of the Quran", 2008, Gender and Muslim Constructions of Exegetical Authority: A Rereading of the Classical Genre of Qurʾān Commentary, Reynolds, "Quranic studies and its controversies", 2008, "Egypt protests: Anti-Mubarak demonstrators arrested", "Egyptians report poor communication services on Day of Anger", "Egypt protests: curfew defied in Cairo and other cities", "Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali forced to flee Tunisia as protesters claim victory", "Egypt unveils plans to build new capital east of Cairo", "World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification", "Biblical snowstorm: Rare flakes in Cairo, Jerusalem paralyzed by over a foot", "Cairo Climate Guide: Monthly Weather, Egypt", "To Catch Cairo Overflow, 2 Megacities Rise in Sand", Map of Greater Cairo & SODIC Developments, "Al-Ahram Weekly | Features | Reaching an impasse", "Egypt to build country's first ever monorail in Cairo", "Cairo monorail trains to be built in UK", "Panda, Buy from Mod Car. The majority of Cairenes make food for themselves and make use of local produce markets. The Fatimids built it as a separate palatial city which contained their palaces and institutions of government. Among its most famous collections on display are the finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Nationalists staged large-scale demonstrations in Cairo in 1919,[32] five years after Egypt had been declared a British protectorate. The contingent comprises 57 members of Spain’s Civil Guard and National Police, two patrol boats, and a helicopter based on the port of Dakar. Northern and extreme eastern parts of Cairo, which include satellite towns, are among the most recent additions to the city, as they developed in the late-20th and early-21st centuries to accommodate the city's rapid growth. In a televised statement Thursday after his meeting with Sánchez, Lourenço said there were opportunities for Spanish investments in such areas as agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, textiles, and the pharmaceutical sector. [144], In recent years, a black cloud (as Egyptians refer to it) of smog has appeared over Cairo every autumn due to temperature inversion. [131] It is still occupied by the military today, but is now open as a tourist attraction comprising, notably, the National Military Museum, the 14th century Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the 19th century Mosque of Muhammad Ali which commands a dominant position on Cairo's skyline. The 12 teams are Algeria's GSP (Groupement Sportif des Petroliers), Angola's Petro de Luanda (Clube Atletico Petroleos de Luanda), Cameroon's FAP (Forces Armees et Police Basketball), Egypt's Zamalek, Madagascar's GNBC (Gendarmerie Nationale Basketball Club), Mali's AS Police (Association Sportive de la Police Nationale), Morocco's AS Sale (Association Sportive de Sale), … It is also situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine churches in the late 4th century. During that time, the construction of the al-Azhar Mosque was commissioned by order of the Caliph, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world. Over the years, the Nile gradually shifted westward, providing the site between the eastern edge of the river and the Mokattam highlands on which the city now stands. [81] In the following days Tahrir Square continued to be the primary destination for protests in Cairo[82] as it took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and continued until June 2013. The Cairo Cleaning and Beautification Agency was founded to collect and recycle the waste; they work with the Zabbaleen community that has been collecting and recycling Cairo's waste since the turn of the 20th century and live in an area known locally as Manshiyat naser. [84], Cairo is located in northern Egypt, known as Lower Egypt, 165 kilometres (100 mi) south of the Mediterranean Sea and 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal. It was dedicated on 1 November 1869 and burned down on 28 October 1971. Get the Rome2rio app Find the best way to get from A to B, anywhere in the world, on your mobile or tablet. This problem is hoped to be solved by a new sewer system funded by the European Union, which could cope with the demand of the city. [86][87] Geologically, Cairo lies on alluvium and sand dunes which date from the quaternary period. The Taylor-Schechter collection in the University of Cambridge runs to 140,000 manuscripts, a further 40,000 manuscripts are at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. For other uses, see, Façade of Terminal 3 at Cairo International Airport, Departures area of Cairo International Airport's Terminal 1, Cairo's automobile assembler and manufacturer. (di)Kashromi (Coptic: (ϯ)ⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ) is attested as early as 1211 and is a calque which means "man breaker" ("ⲕⲁϣ-" – to break, "ⲣⲱⲙⲓ" – man) which is akin to Arabic al-Qāhirah . But Sánchez, a Socialist leading a left-wing coalition, has said that he wants to turn 2020-2030 into “Spain’s decade in Africa,” with both Angola and Senegal among the top priority countries in his three-year “Focus on Africa” policy drive. He helped Joseph ferry a 727 to Nigeria for a sale and during the negotiations stayed to explain the aircraft systems. Check-in online – At, click on the “Check-in” tab, next to Book Online.You have a choice of three languages (English, Portuguese and German) to check-in yourself. Humberto Delgado Airport (IATA: LIS, ICAO: LPPT), also known simply as Lisbon Airport or Portela Airport, is an international airport located 7 km (4.3 mi) northeast from the city centre of Lisbon, the capital of Portugal. Ruling from Constantinople, Sultan Selim I relegated Egypt to a province, with Cairo as its capital. Cairo's hospitals include the JCI-accredited As-Salaam International Hospital—Corniche El Nile, Maadi (Egypt's largest private hospital with 350 beds), Ain Shams University Hospital, Dar Al Fouad, Nile Badrawi Hospital, 57357 Hospital, as well as Qasr El Eyni Hospital. The teams form the major rivalry of Egyptian football, and are the first and the second champions in Africa and the Arab world. [59][60], The immense debt resulting from Isma'il's projects provided a pretext for increasing European control, which culminated with the British invasion in 1882. Khan el-Khalili is an ancient bazaar, or marketplace adjacent to the Al-Hussein Mosque. There are over 4,500,000 cars on the streets of Cairo, 60% of which are over 10 years old, and therefore lack modern emission cutting features. The Headquarters of the Arab League is located in Tahrir Square, near the downtown business district of Cairo. Then follow the directions and go to the luggage transfer point. [127] Today, al-Azhar University is the foremost Center of Islamic learning in the world and one of Egypt's largest universities with campuses across the country. [88][89], Until the mid-19th century, when the river was tamed by dams, levees, and other controls, the Nile in the vicinity of Cairo was highly susceptible to changes in course and surface level. In 1905 the Heliopolis Oasis Company headed by the Belgian industrialist Édouard Empain and by Boghos Nubar, son of the Egyptian Prime Minister Nubar Pasha built a suburb called Heliopolis ten kilometers from the center of Cairo. [96] Dew points in the hottest months range from 13.9 °C (57 °F) in June to 18.3 °C (65 °F) in August.[97]. As al Qahira expanded these earlier settlements were encompassed, and have since become part of the city of Cairo as it expanded and spread; they are now collectively known as "Old Cairo". An extensive road network connects Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages. In 750, following the overthrow of the Umayyad caliphate by the Abbasids, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital. Cairo is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. [101] New development includes several high-end residential developments. The King Fuad I Edition of the Qur’an[65] was first published on 10 July 1924 in Cairo under the patronage of King Fuad. and Long. [76] The British departed Cairo following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but the city's rapid growth showed no signs of abating. Cairo produces 10,000 tons of waste material each day, 4,000 tons of which is not collected or managed. Angola’s President Joao Lourenço welcomed Sánchez during his stop in Luanda on Thursday declaring he wants Spain to be a “key partner” in the diversification of his country’s economy. Padilla was a freelancer, who had worked for Joseph on two jobs before traveling to Angola to repossess 844AA. This edition has become the standard for modern printings of the Quran[69][70] for much of the Islamic world. The European leader, who is traveling with representatives of a dozen Spanish companies, is scheduled to hold talks with Senegal’s Macky Sall in Dakar on Friday. [53][54] However, while Muhammad Ali initiated the construction of public buildings in the city,[55] those reforms had minimal effect on Cairo's landscape. They have the two biggest football teams in Egypt. However, in 1168 the Fatimid vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat to prevent its capture by Amalric, the Crusader king of Jerusalem. [137], The civil rights movement for women in Cairo and Egypt has been a long battle for years. [118] To the north of this Coptic enclave is the Amr ibn al-'As Mosque, the first mosque in Egypt and the most important religious centre of what was formerly Fustat, founded in 642 AD right after the Arab conquest but rebuilt many times since. Some of the International Schools found in Cairo: Cairo has an extensive road network, rail system, subway system and maritime services. 6th of October City, west of Cairo, and New Cairo, east of Cairo, are major urban developments which have been built to accommodate additional growth and development of the Cairo area. Because of the Nile's movement, the newer parts of the city—Garden City, Downtown Cairo, and Zamalek—are located closest to the riverbank. With a population of over 9 million[9] spread over 3 085 km², Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt. These documents were written from about 870 to 1880 AD and have been archived in various American and European libraries. You can identify yourself with your e-ticket number (bought online or through any travel agent or Air Namibia office), your name and flight details or your credit card which you used to pay for your ticket. It consists of Cairo Governorate, parts of Giza Governorate, and parts of Qalyubia Governorate. Homes, roads, electricity, telephone and sewer services were all in short supply. Much of the collection of the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, including the Tutankhamun collection, are slated to be moved to the new Grand Egyptian Museum, under construction in Giza and due to open by the end of 2020.[116][117]. On occasion, sewage has escaped onto the streets to create a health hazard. Egypt's Nour El Sherbini has won the Women's World Championship twice and has been women's world number one for 16 consecutive months. The headquarters of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) was previously located in Cairo, before relocating to its new headquarters in 6 October City, a small city away from Cairo's crowded districts. The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is home to the most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world. [56] Bigger changes came to Cairo under Isma'il Pasha (r. 1863–1879), who continued the modernisation processes started by his grandfather. This original carvanserai building was demolished by Sultan al-Ghuri, who rebuilt it as a new commercial complex in the early 16th century, forming the basis for the network of souqs existing today. [129] It was the centre of Egyptian government and residence of its rulers until 1874, when Khedive Isma'il moved to 'Abdin Palace. The Khedivial Opera House, or Royal Opera House, was the original opera house in Cairo. The area includes the Coptic Cairo, which holds a high concentration of old Christian churches such as the Hanging Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of St. George, and other Christian or Coptic buildings, most of which are located over the site of the ancient Roman fortress. Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters, with at least 846 people killed and 6,000 injured. The Mamluk sultans and elites were eager patrons of religious and scholarly life, commonly building religious or funerary complexes whose functions could include a mosque, madrasa, khanqah (for Sufis), a sabil (water dispensary), and a mausoleum for themselves and their families. A committee of teachers chose to preserve a single one of the canonical qira’at "readings", namely that of the "Ḥafṣ" version,[68] an 8th-century Kufic recitation. At 187 metres (614 feet), it is 44 metres (144 feet) higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some 15 kilometres (9 miles) to the southwest. However, Cairo did host the 2007 Pan Arab Games. Although the Cairo metropolis extends away from the Nile in all directions, the city of Cairo resides only on the east bank of the river and two islands within it on a total area of 453 square kilometres (175 sq mi). Several notable buildings surround the square including, the American University in Cairo's downtown campus, the Mogamma governmental administrative Building, the headquarters of the Arab League, the Nile Ritz Carlton Hotel, and the Egyptian Museum. This page was last edited on 9 April 2021, at 13:17. Cairo, like many other megacities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic. [148] Both are working together to pick up as much waste as possible within the city limits, though it remains a pressing problem. [138] The problem has persisted in spite of new national laws since 2014 defining and criminalizing sexual harassment. The land on which Cairo was established in 969 (present-day Islamic Cairo) was located underwater just over three hundred years earlier, when Fustat was first built. The metropolis began to encroach on the fertile Nile Delta, prompting the government to build desert satellite towns and devise incentives for city-dwellers to move to them.[78]. The annual match between Al Ahly and El Zamalek is one of the most watched sports events in Egypt as well as the African-Arab region. SmarterTravel provides independent expert advice and unbiased reviews for the best travel deals, destinations, and money-saving travel tips that help feed your passion for seeing the world. Cairo has a very poor dispersion factor because of its lack of rain and its layout of tall buildings and narrow streets, which create a bowl effect. [35] During its initial, and most deadly waves, approximately 200,000 people were killed by the plague,[36] and, by the 15th century, Cairo's population had been reduced to between 150,000 and 300,000. This achievement had also placed the Egyptian football team as the #9 best team in the world's FIFA rankings. [139] The situation is so severe that in 2017 Cairo was named by one poll as the most dangerous megacity for women in the world. This achievement lead to the President of the Festival again contacting the FIAPF with the request that a competition should be included at the 1991 Festival. This was al-Qatta'i ("the Quarters"), to the north of Fustat and closer to the river. There is a new Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of the city, with exits that reach outer Cairo districts. It is also the location of the Coptic Museum, which showcases the history of Coptic art from Greco-Roman to Islamic times, and of the Ben Ezra Synagogue, the oldest and best-known synagogue in Cairo, where the important collection of Geniza documents were discovered in the 19th century. The Mamluks, and the later Ottomans, also built wikalas or caravanserais to house merchants and goods due to the important role of trade and commerce in Cairo's economy. [61][62] Europeans accounted for five percent of Cairo's population at the end of the 19th century, by which point they held most top governmental positions.[63]. The Angolan government is preparing to privatize around 200 companies. Most of the sports federations of the country are also located in the city suburbs, including the Egyptian Football Association. [128] Cairo held its first international film festival 16 August 1976, when the first Cairo International Film Festival was launched by the Egyptian Association of Film Writers and Critics, headed by Kamal El-Mallakh. [32] The city's economic centre quickly moved west toward the Nile, away from the historic Islamic Cairo section and toward the contemporary, European-style areas built by Isma'il. This has fuelled rapid construction in the city—one building in five is less than 15 years old. [72], British troops remained in the country until 1956. [83] On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Hosni Mubarak resigned from office. [120], The first mosque in Egypt was the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As in what was formerly Fustat, the first Arab-Muslim settlement in the area. Government statistics consider that the whole governorate is urban and the whole governorate is treated like as the metropolitan-city of Cairo. Mohamed El Shorbagy held the world number one position for more than a year before being overtaken by compatriot Karim Abdel Gawad, who is number two behind Gregory Gaultier of France. A 2013 UN study found that over 99% of Egyptian women reported experiencing sexual harassment at some point in their lives. Part of that solution is to resume flights of forced returns to Senegal, a program that has been halted since 2018. It provides a bird's eye view of Cairo to the restaurant patrons. The majority of the nation's commerce is generated there, or passes through the city. There are several other sports teams in the city that participate in several sports including el Gezira Sporting Club, el Shams Club, el Seid Club, Heliopolis Club and several smaller clubs, but the biggest clubs in Egypt (not in area but in sports) are Al Ahly and Al Zamalek. [130] The famous Khan al-Khalili is a commercial hub which also integrated caravanserais (also known as khans). The summer months have high humidity due to its coastal location. [108] There are also Christian churches and temples: Coptic Orthodox Church, Coptic Catholic Church (Catholic Church), Evangelical Church of Egypt (Synod of the Nile) (World Communion of Reformed Churches). But officials in Madrid fear that the fallout of lockdowns in jobs and the shockwaves of the global economic slump could send even more Africans on the perilous journey to European shores, many of them via Spain. However, the Mosque of Ibn Tulun is the oldest mosque that still retains its original form and is a rare example of Abbasid architecture from the classical period of Islamic civilization. [123][124] Another Abbasid construction, the Nilometer on Rhoda Island, is the oldest original structure in Cairo, built in 862 AD. Following the Muslim conquest in AD 640, the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as al-Fustat. The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes. [32][47], The French occupation was short-lived as British and Ottoman forces, including a sizeable Albanian contingent, recaptured the country in 1801. During this time, urban Cairo, spurred by new bridges and transport links, continued to expand to include the upscale neighbourhoods of Garden City, Zamalek, and Heliopolis. [85] The city lies along the Nile River, immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valley and branches into the low-lying Nile Delta region. Connect with the definitive source for global and local news. It dates back to 1385, when Amir Jarkas el-Khalili built a large caravanserai, or khan. Cairo (/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KY-roh; Arabic: القاهرة‎, romanized: al-Qāhirah, pronounced [ælˈqɑːhɪɾɑ] (listen), Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and largest city of Egypt. A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government. Single detached houses are symbolic of the wealthy. The Association ran the festival for seven years until 1983. Seeking to accommodate the increasing population, President Gamal Abdel Nasser redeveloped Maidan Tahrir and the Nile Corniche, and improved the city's network of bridges and highways. The dangerously high levels of mercury in the city's water system has global health officials concerned over related health risks. The Boulaq district, which lies in the northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port and is now a major industrial centre. No new date has been set for the visit. The subway system, officially called "Metro (مترو)", is a fast and efficient way of getting around Cairo. The city's most exclusive restaurants are typically concentrated in Zamalek and around the luxury hotels lining the shore of the Nile near the Garden City district. On 30 April 2016, she became the youngest woman to win the Women's World Championship which was held in Malaysia. Two train cars (the fourth and fifth ones) are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want. There are a few Coptic names of the city. Cairo failed at the applicant stage when bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympics, which was hosted in Beijing, China. Rainfall is sparse and only happens in the colder months, but sudden showers can cause severe flooding. The Citadel is a fortified enclosure begun by Salah al-Din in 1176 AD on an outcrop of the Muqattam Hills as part of a large defensive system to protect both Cairo to the north and Fustat to the southwest. This is a huge health hazard, and the Egyptian Government is looking for ways to combat this. [28] As the first Sultan of Egypt, Saladin established the Ayyubid dynasty, based in Cairo, and aligned Egypt with the Abbasids, who were based in Baghdad. There are new sports clubs in the area of New Cairo (one hour far from Cairo's down town), these are Al Zohour sporting club, Wadi Degla sporting club and Platinum Club. Lead has been shown to cause harm to the central nervous system and neurotoxicity particularly in children. [87] The Cairo Governorate was just north of the Helwan Governorate from 2008 when some Cairo's southern districts, including Maadi and New Cairo, were split off and annexed into the new governorate,[93] to 2011 when the Helwan Governorate was reincorporated into the Cairo Governorate. Cairo's political influence diminished significantly after the Ottomans supplanted Mamluk power over Egypt in 1517. [90], Low periods of the Nile during the 11th century continued to add to the landscape of Cairo; a new island, known as Geziret al-Fil, first appeared in 1174, but eventually became connected to the mainland.